Home

Relation between flow and pressure in hydraulics

Hydraulic Pressure vs

  1. The pump doesn't pump pressure. The pump delivers a rate of flow. The single function of the pump is to take fluid from one place and put it somewhere else. Pressure is the result of resistance to flow
  2. The resistance exerted by a load initiates pressure in a circuit. Therefore, the difference between hydraulic pump pressure & flow is that the pump delivers a flow rate, and pressure results when flow encounters resistance. Pressure is a measure of this resistance as a force per unit area
  3. If Q= flow rate (m3s-1) v= velocity (ms-1) A= area (m2) and P= pressure (Nm-2

whitehouseproductsltd

What is Relation between flow and pressure of hydraulic

  1. =.00039 hp Example: 10 gpm flow across a pressure reducing valve with a 300 psi drop = 1.75 hp of heat generated 1.75 hp of heat = 4,453 BTU/hr = 105 BTU/
  2. The flow coefficient of a device is a relative measure of its efficiency at allowing fluid flow. It describes the relationship between the pressure drop across an orifice valve or other assembly and the corresponding flow rate. Mathematically the flow coefficient Cv (or flow-capacity rating of valve) can be expressed as
  3. Since pressure = rate of flow in a fluid, the PV relation is velocity*volume; the velocity across the flow is differential so that the normal pressure is greatest closest to the walls of the.
  4. There is a direct mathematical relationship between the force that a hydraulic system is capable of transferring, the pressure of the system, and the surface area of the component being driven. This relationship is commonly expressed using the FPA Triangle. If we know the pressure and the piston surface area we can thus calculate the force

Understanding the Difference Between Flow, Velocity, and

The most crucial concept required in order to be a hydraulic troubleshooter. Visit our website at http://www.gpmhydraulic.com to learn about our two-part tr.. Note that pressure drop (ie: head loss) is a function of the velocity squared, so doubling the flow rate doubles velocity which quadruples pressure drop. However, the friction factor f, also changes depending on Reynolds number, which may or may not change significantly as flow rate changes

• Pressure is the force acting per unit area; it is a scalar point property of fluids. • Flow is the rate at which fluid passes through a gives surface and flow is caused by the difference in pressure within a fluid Hydraulic Pump Power. The ideal hydraulic power to drive a pump depends on. the mass flow rate the; liquid density; the differential height - either it is the static lift from one height to an other or the total head loss component of the system - and can be calculated like. P h(kW) = q ρ g h / (3.6 10 6) = q p / (3.6 10 6) (1) wher The Difference Between Pressure and Flow. Of all the concepts that keep parts changers from becoming hydraulic troubleshooters, understanding the difference between pressure and flow is the most crucial. A surprising number of technicians use the terms interchangeably. A lot of telephone calls I receive start out, My pump isn't putting out. Steady-state flow Steady-state flow hydraulics yields the relation between pressure and throughput, finally the transport capacity of the pipeline. The alliance of continuity of mass and momentum (reduced to steady-state conditions) leads directly to the pressure-throughput-relation. Gases and liquids, however, are described differently. For.

What is the relation between the pressure and the flow

To relate fluid bulk flow velocity to the potential pressure-spike height, express the relationship as: Hose, fluid, and other system components have capacitance. The hose assembly expands under.. flow rate allowed for the calculation of permeability and related values. The velocity of a homogeneous fluid in a porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity.5 Equation 1 known as Darcy's law, illustrates the relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop. Bernoulli's Equation. The Bernoulli's equation can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. It is one of the most important/useful equations in fluid mechanics.It puts into a relation pressure and velocity in an inviscid incompressible flow.Bernoulli's equation has some restrictions in its applicability, they summarized in. Losses of pressure in the hydraulic system Flow resistances in pressure lines and valves The following graph shows the relation between oil pressure, piston force and piston diameter. 100 200 300 400 500 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1000 1600 16 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 20

p = pressure in Bar q = flow in litre per minute k = discharge constant Lpm/Bar 0.5. and for imperial calculation: p = pressure in psi q = flow in gpm k = discharge constant gpm/psi 0.5 . We can also use K-factors for many other applications in fire hydraulics such as flow from a fire hydrant, wet riser outlet, hose reel or foam monitor Pressure filters are located downstream from the system pump. They are designed to handle the system pressure and are sized for the specific flow rate in the pressure line where they are located. Pressure filters are especially suited for protecting sensitive components, such as servovalves, directly downstream from the filter Sorry ICZ, flow force doesn't really count in this instance. Since the cracking pressure of the valve is the pressure needed to open the valve the tiniest amount (open just a crack) then, by definition, the flow will be infinitesimally small and the flow forces at the cracking pressure will be similarly infinitesimal

Hydraulic analogy - Wikipedi

Hydraulics is defined as a branch of science that deals with the effects of water or other liquids in motion. In this manual we will study characteristics of water both in motion and at rest. The emphasis will be on the relationships between flow, velocity, and pressure. With this knowledge we will be able to determine pressure losses in pipe an The pressure drop purely due to flow inertia, i.e. without viscosity, expressed as ratio P x / P 0 between the pressure somewhere within the uniform portion of the constriction (P x = P (x) with x 1 < x < x 2 in Fig. 2) and upstream from the constriction (P 0 at x = x 0) depends solely on the geometry as P x / P 0 ≈ 1 − (A s / A c) 2 with A. The pressure drop caused by friction of laminar flow does not depend of the roughness of pipe. If the Reynolds number > 2320, you have turbulent flow. There is an irregular motion of fluid particles in directions transverse to the direction of the main flow 1 illustrates the energy and hydraulic grade lines for open channel and pressure flow in pipes. As illustrated in Figure 1, if the HGL is above the inside top (crown) of the pipe, pressure flow conditions exist. Conversely, if the HGL is below the crown of the pipe, open channel flow conditions exist

process, the pressure measured at that point is called stagnation pressure. Figure. Measurement of stagnation pressure (Pitot tube). In incompressible flow, applying Bernoulli equation between points in the free stream and at the nose of tube and taking z = 0 at the tube centerline, we get where P 0 is the stagnation pressure, the stagnation. Power is consumed by a pump, fan or compressor in order to move and increase the pressure of a fluid. The power requirement of the pump depends on a number of factors including the pump and motor efficiency, the differential pressure and the fluid density, viscosity and flow rate. This article provides relationships to determine the required pump power In a hydraulic system, there is many times a direct working relationship between a flow control valve and a pressure valve functioning as a relief valve. The flow control valve is a resistance which results in a higher pressure being applied by the pump. This pressure partially opens the relief valve Figure 5-5. A uniform open-channel flow: the depth and the velocity profile is the same at all sections along the flow. 12 One kind of problem that is associated with uniform flow is what the channel slope will be if discharge Q, water depth d, and bed sediment size D are specified or imposed upon the flow Where: Q = discharge in m 3 /sec or ft 3 /sec A = cross-sectional area of flow in m 2 or ft 2 v = mean velocity of flow in m/sec or ft/sec ρ = mass density of fluid in kg/m 3 or slugs/ft 3 γ = unit weight of fluid in N/m 3 or lb/ft 3. Laminar Flow Flow is said to be laminar when the paths of the individual particles do not cross or intersect. By many careful experiments to commercial pipes.

When the fluid has decelerated and returned to the normal bulk flow pattern the final downstream pressure has been reached. The discharge coefficient characterises the relationship between flow rate and pressure loss based on the geometry of a nozzle or orifice In steady state, a hydraulic motor can also be thought of as a simple gain relationship between the input flow and output speed, similar to Eq. (1). The steady-state relationship for a cylinder is a constant gain between input flow and output cylinder velocity. Dynamically, the motor can be represented as shown in Fig. 11 (Merritt, 1967) Differential Pressure - The difference in pressure between any two points in a system or a component. (Also called a pressure drop.) Full-Flow Pressure - The pressure at which a valve is wide open and passes its full flow. Operating Pressure - The pressure at which a system is normally operated nozzle applications it's almost always a pressure difference that causes flow. A fluid will try to flow from high pressure to low pressure. But there are other things that can cause flow, such as a height difference or even a temperature difference. The basic relationship between flow and pressure for a nozzle is: Flow1/Flow2 = square root.

3. Describe the relationship between pressure, flow , and resistance in regulating peripheral circulation. 4. Define systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure. 5. Explain the myogenic response, hyperemia and reactive hyperemia. Name two reflexes that control blood pressure. 6 Full Flow Sizing If the pressure available at the valve is 45 PSI, we can select a valve that will Flow 17 GPM @ 25 PSI. Our selection will be a 431. Available Pressure at Valve Model # Min Flow Min Flow to 5 10 20 30 45 60 100 Rate ASSE 1017 Flow Rate in GPM 431 0.5 4 7.5 11 16 20 25 29 38.5 432 0.5 7 15 20 30 36 45 52 67 433 0.5 10.

q = volume flow through pump (m 3 /s) P s = brake power (kW) c p = specific heat of the fluid (kJ/kg o C) μ = pump efficiency. ρ = fluid density (kg/m 3) A typical relation between flow, efficiency and power consumption for a centrifugal pump: Pump - Temperature Rise Calculator. P s - brake power (kW) μ - pump efficiency. c p-specific heat. For a more indepth discussion of the relationship between spray pressure and nozzle performance, and how rate controllers work, check out this article. It is far better to simply switch nozzles when a significant change in flow rate is required Home >> Category >> Mechanical Engineering (MCQ) questions and answers >> Hydraulics & Pneumatics; Q. What is the relation between speed and flow rate for fixed displacement vane pump? - Published on 14 Aug 15. a. flow rate increases with increase in speed of rotor

newtonian mechanics - Where does the extra force generated

Basic Hydraulic Formulas Flodraulic Grou

Pressure vs. Flow—The Basics. Pressure is force. It acts in all directions, all at once and with the same power. The amount of force a pressure exerts is directly related to the area in which the pressure is contained (pressure = force/area). Pressure does not require directional input, like a hammer on a nail. It merely needs to be routed. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate through a valve is conveniently expressed by a flow coefficient (Cv). What is Flow Coefficient (Cv)? Flow coefficient (Cv) is defined as the number of gallons per minute (gpm) at 60°F that will pass through a full open valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi Relationship Between Pressure and Flow Pressure regulators are recommended if there is a 10-20% pressure and/or a 5-10% flow variation. The lower a system's design pressure, the more critical it is to accurately control its pressure. Pressure Variation Fluid pipe elements in Abaqus/Standard allow you to simulate the viscous and gravity pressure loss terms in a fluid pipe network. The pipe elements use a pure pressure formulation and are based on Bernoulli's equation for the case of steady-state flow of a single-phase, incompressible fluid through a fully filled pipe with a constant cross-sectional area

Sheet1

Hydraulic Jump: Formula, Rectangular, Triangular Channel and Table! The Hydraulic Jump or Standing Wave: . We know that for a given discharge per unit width of a channel, for a given value of the specific energy head E there can be two possible depths of flow d 1 and d 2.. For instance corresponding to specific energy head E = OG [Fig. 14.82], the depth of flow can be d 1 = GH or d 2 = GI 9.2. Calculations. If the volumetric measuring tank was used, then calculate the flow rate from: Correct the pressure rise measurement (outlet pressure) across the pump by adding a 0.07 bar to allow for the difference of 0.714 m in height between the measurement point for the pump outlet pressure and the actual pump outlet connection Head Loss - Pressure Loss. In the practical analysis of piping systems the quantity of most importance is the pressure loss due to viscous effects along the length of the system, as well as additional pressure losses arising from other technological equipments like, valves, elbows, piping entrances, fittings and tees. At first, an extended Bernoulli's equation must be introduced The relationship between pressure and head is defined by the following formula P= ρgh Where. P is pressure (N/m 2) ρ as this makes the hydraulic calculations simpler. For gas flow a constant density cannot be defined so it is simpler to calculate the friction loss as a pressure The pressure drop caused by friction of laminar flow does not depend of the roughness of pipe. If the Reynolds number > 2320, you have turbulent flow. There is an irregular motion of fluid particles in directions transverse to the direction of the main flow

Clean Water Networks - Hydraulics - WatertrainWatertrain

INSTRUCTION MANUAL F1-21 FLOW METER DEMONSTRATION F1-21 ISSUE 3 SEPTEMBER 2001 ARMFIELD LIMITED OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS AND EXPERIMENTS F1-21 SAFETY IN THE USE OF EQUIPMENT SUPPLIED BY ARMFIELD 1 INTRODUCTION 2. By vic olawepo. Fluid mechanics laboratory. By Afiq Imran. Download pdf The flow rate is determined with equation (1) in which the linear area-opening relationship is replaced by a lookup table function A=A(h). 3. By providing a table-specified relationship between the flow rate, orifice opening, and pressure differential. The flow rate is determined by interpolation from the two-dimensional lookup table

Because the relationship between flow and pressure involves a square root, the differential drops off quickly as flow decreases. For this reason, the dynamic range for these sensors is limited to. I read two different things about the relationship between power (P) of a pump and flow rate (Q). The most common thing that I found was simply that Q is directly proportional to P (power-of-pump). But in Wikipedia: Affinity Laws, it states that Q is proportional to shaft speed (S), and P is proportional to the cube of shaft speed (S^3). This. When the pressure rises on the outlet, flow may slip back from the outlet to the inlet and the output flow rate is reduced. For example it is possible to shut the outlet valve on a centrifugal pump and the rotor will spin but no output flow is produced. Because of internal slippage, the relationship between pressure and flow rate of such a pump i

Which of the following statements are false? 1. Pressure is resistance to flow 2. Friction creates pressure 3. Load cannot create pressure on the system 4. The pressure developed decreases if load offers more resistanc and I'm going to talk to you about pressure resistance and flow so we're going to try to make sure you feel real comfortable with all three of these things by the time we're done so we start with the harps and off of the heart is the aorta this is the largest artery in the body and this is one branch of the aorta I didn't draw a lot of the other ones is the brachial artery and the blood is. Hydraulic radius, R, a measure of channel flow efficiency, is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of fluid flow, A, to the length of the wetted perimeter, P. R=AP. The hydraulic radius is one of the main properties that control the amount of fluid discharge of a channel and its ability to move sediments M [kg/h] : mass flow. Δp [kg/m²] : differential pressure. ρ 1 [kg/m³] : density under operating conditions. ρ N [kg/Nm³] : density under standard conditions. k: coefficient (determined by type and size of throttle element. From the above, the relation between the flow rate and the differential pressure where the density is constant but the flow is rate is variable is as listed in Table 1 Whenever fluid flows, there is a loss of mechanical energy to overcome viscous forces within the fluid. In a hydraulic system, this loss is seen as a pressure drop in the direction of flow. Each component within the hydraulic system will contribute toward the pressure drop, i.e. cartridge valves, tubing, fittings, hoses, filters etc

Figure 9 Relationship between pressure (p) and demand (d) using both the demand-driven and pressure dependent demand simulations. ¶ The required pressure and minimum pressure are defined in the the hydraulic options, and can be reset as shown in the following example 11.THEREFORE, pressure difference between two points in a constant density fluid is proportional to the vertical distance Δz (or h) between the points and the density ρ of the fluid. 12.The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal, named after Blaise Pascal who - among other things - proved the idea of a vacuum and developed th

Flow coefficient - Wikipedi

two tanks. The relationship between the change in flow rate of liquid q through the resistance element and the resulting pressure difference (p1 - p2) is given as q p p R 1 2 Change in flow rate, m3/s Pressure difference − = = (1) Where R is a constant called the hydraulic resistance. The higher the resistanc Relationship Between Forces in a Hydraulic System We can derive a relationship between the forces in the simple hydraulic system shown in Figure 1 by applying Pascal's principle. Note first that the two pistons in the system are at the same height, and so there will be no difference in pressure due to a difference in depth 42. What is the formula for rate of flow in a hydraulic system? Rate of Flow = Area x Velocity 43. Which is larger, ½ tubing or ½ galvanized pipe? ½ pipe as it is measured inside but tubing is measured outside 44. What is the formula for finding area when force and pressure are known? Area = Force/Pressure Hydraulics Competency 2 1 Where: v = mean velocity of flow (m/sec in SI and ft/sec in English) p = fluid pressure (N/m 2 or Pa in SI and lb/ft 2 or psf in English) z = position of fluid above or below the datum plane (m in SI and ft in English) g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/sec 2 in SI and 32.2 ft/sec 2 in English) γ = Unit weight of fluid (N/m 3 in SI and lb/ft 3 in English). Power and Efficienc If you consider only stationary viscous pipe flow, the Hagen-Poiseuille law describes the relation between the mean pressure and flow in a rigid tube. The peak flow can be obtained from the.

The effective and hydraulic diameters were determined at the superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus and both proximal and distal sigmoid sinuses. A quadratic relationship between blood flow and sinus pressure was found, with correlations of 0.99 or above in all five patients The effective and hydraulic diameters were determined at the superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus and both proximal and distal sigmoid sinuses. Results: A quadratic relationship between blood flow and sinus pressure was found, with correlations of 0.99 or above in all five patients. The presence of vortical blood flow was found to explain.

Video: What is the relation between pressure and velocity in

Homepage HYDRAULIEK

Hydraulics 2 T3-8 David Apsley Example. The drag force on a body in a fluid flow is a function of the body size (expressed via a characteristic length L) and the fluid velocity V, density ρ and viscosity μ. Perform a dimensional analysis to reduce this to a single functional dependence c D f(Re) where Before knowing the difference between open channel flow and pipe flow; we have to know about them. Open Channel Flow. A conduit for the flow which has a free surface and which is subjected to atmospheric pressure is an open channel and flow in an open channel is known as open channel flow.. The free surface is actually an interface between two fluids of different density and will have constant. into the following relation known as Colebrook equation 1 √ f =−2.0 log ε/D 3.7 + 2.51 Re √ f (6) The Colebrook equation is implicit in f, and determination of friction factor requires tedious iteration. An approximate explicit relation for f is given by S.E. Haaland in 1983 as 1 √ f =−1.8 log 6.9 Re + ε/D 3.7 1.11 # (7) Example 2-3: Saturated Flow and Potential Diagram. Problem Statement: A constant water pressure of was maintained at the bottom of a 0.5 m vertical saturated soil column, and the water height at the column's top was also kept constant at 20 mm. Given the soils saturated hydraulic conductivity K s = 5 mm/hr, find: (1) The direction of flow; draw a system sketch and a potential diagra

FORCED CONVECTION:LAMINAR FLOW IN TUBES | hydraulics andENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT,WORK,AND MASS:CONSERVATION OF MASS

Hydraulic Basics LunchBox Session

4. Recognize the relationship between reactor vessel pressure, turbine inlet pressure and pressure setpoint. 5. Recognize the purpose of the following limiters: a. Load Set b. Load Limit c. Maximum Combined Flow 6. Recognize the purpose, function and operation of the following EHC system subsystems: a. Pressure Control Unit b. Speed Control Uni Static, dynamic and total pressure, flow velocity and Mach number Static pressure is pressure of fluid in flow stream. Total pressure is pressure of fluid when it is brought to rest, i.e. velocity is reduced to 0. Total pressure can be calculated using Bernoulli theorem The loss pressure is determined by the following function: L = friction factor (a number without dimension) Re = Reynolds number; The laminar flow meets in practice only in the transport and the handling of the viscous fluids, such as the crude oil, fuel oil, oils, etc. Turbulent flow (Re > 2000

The Difference Between Pressure and Flow - YouTub

Since the pressure at 1 will be higher than the pressure at 2 (for flow moving from 1 to 2), the pressure difference as defined will be a positive quantity. From continuity, the velocities can be replaced by cross-sectional areas of the flow and the volumetric flowrate Q Open Chanel flow is that type of flow which is neither completely enclosed by the boundaries nor is under any external pressure but gravity. It is subjected to atmospheric pressure. e.g. Rivers, natural and artificial canals, streams, channels etc. Partially filled pipes flow is also an example of open channel flow Hydraulic pressure. Rotary Shaft Speed. Which of the following is not a type of fixed displacement pump? a. Centrifugal b. Vane c. Gear d. Piston. Flow occurs between two connected points in a hydraulic system when_____. a. There is a vacuum b. A pressure differential exists c. There is high pressure Analytical and numerical solutions for flow through partially saturated soils typically require functional relationships between water content, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity. Here we propose a Weibull‐type function to describe the hydraulic conductivity‐pressure head function

National Income and Related Aggregates (Top 22 FAQs)Vinyasa Flow Yoga for Stress Relief | Peaceful DumplingGap Flow Simulation Methods in High Pressure Variable

Relationship between Flow Rate and Pressure Physics Forum

The nature of water is that it will reach the most efficient balance between flow rate and pressure loss that it can. (Note, I am oversimplifying this to make it digestible for the average person. If you have a degree in hydraulics you already know all the other related stuff about open vs. closed channels and nozzling effects. In a fluid, the local pressure is related to the local velocity. If the velocity changes with location, the pressure changes as well. If the velocity is low, and no energy is added to the flow, the relation between pressure and velocity is given by Bernoulli's equation along a streamline flow is reduced to vapor pressure. one-dimensional flow of the fluid as it passes between the inlet and the outlet sections of the impeller as the blades rotate. An appropriate relationship between the flowrate and the pump ideal head rise: r2 2 2 2 V U V cot. Hydraulic conductivity (or slope K) defines the proportional relationship between flux and hydraulic gradient, or in this case, of unidirectional flow in saturated soil. Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks ) is a quantitative expression of the soil's ability to transmit water under a given hydraulic gradient The machine intensification ratio, or the material/hydraulic pressure ratio is the direct relationship between the injection pressure and the hydraulic pressure. This is the ratio of the resin pressure in front of the screw, compared to the oil pressure in the piston of the injection molding machine. The injection pressure and hydraulic pressure differ significantly in an injection molding machin

Difference Between Pressure and Flow Compare the

Values for approach velocity, pressure-flow velocity under the bridge deck, and contraction scour were all recorded. A conceptual relationship between pressure-flow scour and the flow conditions was developed and analyzed with the use of the experimental data The 'generator' side of the system is the pump which brings in a fixed or regulated flow of oil to the bottom side of the cylinder - to move the piston rod upwards. Hydraulic cylinders transform the pressure and oil flow in a hydraulic system into work or mechanical force. They are used where linear motion is required to move something

What is the Relationship Between Flow and Pressure? Another little known fact about compressed air from an end user's point of view is that discharge pressure has a direct impact on flow. In fact, we know from Boyle's Law that: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Relation between resistance to the flow of fluid, pressure and radius of the vessel. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 3 months ago. in which case the product of pressure drop times flow rate is constant, and reducing the tube diameter may both increase the pressure gradient and decrease the flow rate, depending on the type of pump you use.. The rheologist is interested primarily in the relationship between flow pressure and flow rate, and in the influence thereon of the flow characteristics of the fluid. There are two fundamentally different relationships: The laminar flow regime prevails at low flow velocities

  • Cadeau naissance original.
  • Get SID of domain user.
  • Men's platinum Wedding bands Comfort Fit.
  • Martha Raddatz height.
  • RC submarine kit.
  • Being childlike Quotes.
  • Movies huntsville, TX.
  • Berlin Blockade Revision.
  • Red pepper calories.
  • Base excision repair SlideShare.
  • What Is mortgage default.
  • Union Bank debit card designs.
  • ETN ETF.
  • Stress path geotechnical.
  • Flash animation tutorial step by step lessons.
  • How much does it cost to produce a reusable grocery bag.
  • When does competitive innovation create bargaining power?.
  • Cure for diabetes type 2 found.
  • Security deposit deductions list.
  • 1920 Penny value.
  • Nissan GTR price.
  • Galaxy Tab A price.
  • Baseball Showcase camps 2020.
  • How to relic nickel parts.
  • YouTube how to make a bow out of ribbon.
  • Wolf sanctuary Colorado Springs.
  • Tennessee House of Representatives salary.
  • How to delete Downloads on Mac.
  • ISP license Guidelines.
  • Web tracking.
  • Brute force Zip password online.
  • Phlebotomist salary in South Africa.
  • Kikkoman beef teriyaki recipe.
  • How long do you need SR22 insurance in Virginia.
  • Cast on using thumb method AT end of row.
  • Upcoming art exhibition in Kolkata.
  • Car tuning software for laptop.
  • RC submarine kit.
  • Sb to SWF converter.
  • Fish freezing technology.
  • What is National Insurance.