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Rifampicin mechanism of action

Rifampin: mechanisms of action and resistanc

Rifampin: mechanisms of action and resistance Rifampin specifically inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for DNA transcription, by forming a stable drug-enzyme complex with a binding constant of 10(-9) M at 37 C. The corresponding mammalian enzymes are not affected by rifampin. Bacterial resistance to rifampin is caused by Mechanism of action Binding of rifampicin in the active site of RNA polymerase. Mutation of amino acids shown in red are involved in resistance to the antibiotic. Rifampicin inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Rifampicin is a member of the class of rifamycins that is a a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from Amycolatopsis rifamycinica (previously known as Amycolatopsis mediterranei and Streptomyces mediterranei) It has a role as an EC 2.7.7.6 (RNA polymerase) inhibitor, a DNA synthesis inhibitor, an antitubercular agent, a leprostatic drug, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a protein synthesis. Rifampin specifically inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for DNA transcription, by forming a stable drug-enzyme complex with a binding constant of 10 −9 M at 37 C. The corresponding mammalian enzymes are not affected by rifampin Mechanism of action Rifampin acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, leading to a suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death

Rifampicin - Wikipedi

Mechanism of action — Rifampin is thought to inhibit bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which appears to occur as a result of drug binding in the polymerase subunit deep within the DNA/RNA channel, facilitating direct blocking of the elongating RNA [ 3 ]. This effect is thought to be concentration related [ 4 ] Abstract The lipophilic antibiotic rifampicin is successfully used in the treatment of tuberculosis. On the molecular level it interferes with the metabolism of Eubacteria by blocking RNA synthesis. This effect is the consequence of the tight binding of the drug to a single and highly specific binding site on the DNA‐dependent RNA polymerase Mechanism of action of rifampicin DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an essential enzyme in the process of transcription. RNAP reads the target DNA sequence and catalyzes the polymerization of the complementary RNA chain with ribonucleotide triphosphate monomers The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics synthesized by certain Streptomyces species. One of these antibiotics, rifampicin, specifically inhibits the bacterial RNA polymerase by binding to the β subunit of this enzyme

Mechanism of Action. Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase by binding to beta subunit, which in turn blocks RNA transcription; potent enzyme inducer. Absorption. PO well absorbed; food may delay or slightly reduce peak. Peak plasma time: PO, 2-4 hr. Distributio Mechanism of Action of Rifampicin Rifampicin is primarily bactericidal and has some bacteriostatic properties also. It acts by inhibiting DNA dependent RNA polymerase and thus stopping the expression of bacterial genes.M.tuberculosis requires DNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme for the synthesis of RNA and protein We also show that RNA polymerase is the target for rifampicin, and that this antibiotic specifically inhibits the transition from synthesis of short oligoribonucleotides to full-length transcripts

Rifampin or rifampicin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic compound derived from Streptomyces mediterranei, and may be abbreviated as RIF, RMP, RD or R. This medication is typically used to treat mycobacterium infections, including tuberculosis and leprosy, has a role in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in. Resistance to rifampicin (RIF) is a broad subject covering not just the mechanism of clinical resistance, nearly always due to a genetic change in the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP),.. Rifampicin levels in the plasma are not significantly affected by haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Rifampicin is excreted in breastmilk (1 to 3 ug/ml). Mode of action: Toxicodynamics: Rifampicin causes cholestasis at both the sinusoids and canaliculi of the liver because of defect in uptake by hepatocytes and defect in excretion, respectively Mechanism/mode of action:Refampin is bactericidal at .005-.2micrograms/ml vsMicobacterium tuberculosis.Rifampicin inhibits Grampositive bacteria and works byBinding non-covalently to DNA-dependent RNA polymeraseand inhibiting the start of RNA synthesisThe DNA-dependent RNA polymerases in eukaryotic cellsare unaffected, since the drug binds to. The rifamycins have a unique mechanism of action, selectively inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and show no cross-resistance with other antibiotics in clinical use. However, despite their activity against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, the rifamycins themselves suffer from a rather high frequency of resistance

Rifampicin in leprosy

R3501 Page 2 of 4 03/28/97 - ARO RIFAMPICIN Sigma Prod. No. R3501 SOLUBILITY / SOLUTION STABILITY: A 1% suspension in water has a pH of 4.5-6.5.4,7 Stock solutions in DMSO were diluted in 0.20 M potassium phosphate buffer to prepare working solutions of 10 µg/ml.8 Solution stabilities of Rif: DMSO, 10 mg/ml, about 8 months at 15°C8; water-ethanol (8:2), 1 mg/ml, 8 weeks at 4°C or 20°C.2,4. Mechanism Of Action. Rifampin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme. Resistance. Organisms resistant to rifampin are likely to be resistant to other rifamycins Pharmacolog

Rifampicin C43H58N4O12 - PubChe

Rifampicin 3.2.1 Mechanism of action Rifamycins contain an aromatic nucleus linked on both sides by an aliphatic bridge. The rifamycins easily diffuse across the M. tuberculosis cell membrane due to their lipophilic profile (Wade and Zhang 2004). Their bactericidal activity has been attributed to thei RIVA, S., A. FIETTA and L.G. SILVESTRI: Mechanism of action of a rifamycin derivative (AF/013) which is active on the nucleic acid polymerases insensitive to rifampicin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1263-1271 (1972). PubMed CrossRef Google Schola Mode of Action. Strongly inhibits prokaryotic RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase to a lesser degree. Does not inhibit T7 RNA polymerase. Mechanism of Resistance. Cells can spontaneously mutate to achieve resistance to Rifampicin. Usage Notes. 50 mg/mL stock solution in methanol

Levin, ME and Hatfull, GF (1993) Mycobacterium smegmatis RNA polymerase: DNA supercoiling, action of rifampicin and mechanism of rifampicin resistance. Molecular Microbiology, 8 (2). 277 - 285. ISSN 0950-382 Rifampin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P-450 oxidative enzymes. A few examples of well-documented clinically significant interactions include interactions with warfarin, oral contraceptives, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids, ketoconazole or itraconazole, theophylline, quinidine sulfate, digitoxin or digoxin, verapamil hydrochloride, human immunodeficiency virus-related protease inhibitors. Rifampicin is a lipophylic ansamycin introduced in 1972. Due to its efficient antimicrobial action, it is considered, together with isoniazid, to be the basis of the short-course treatment regimen for TB. 5 rifampin, rifampicin, Gram-positive, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign body infection, graft infection, However, the pathophysiologic mechanism be-hind this phenomenon was not acknowledged (i.e., it was not known whether true infection by streptococci co-existed with psoriasis). The hypothesis. It blocks initiation. 3. A comparison is made between the mechanism of action of rifamazine and that of rifampicin, and of AF/013 (octyloxime of 3-formylrifamycin SV), a C-class rifamycin. Our results show that the mechanism of action of rifamazine is more similar to that of rifampicin than to that of the octyloxime derivative. 4

Rifampin: Mechanisms of Action and Resistance Clinical

  1. Take a closer look at the following details about using Rifampicin right now. Ladies, ever heard of Rifampicin? Take a closer look at the following details now
  2. Mechanism of Action of Rifampin S409 merase containing the a and P' subunits from a sensitive strain and the f3 subunit from a resistant strain is resistant to rifampin [26]. Resistance to Rifampin In general, bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a consequence of either (1) a change in the target sit
  3. Rifampin is in a class of medications called antimycobacterials. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection. Antibiotics such as rifampin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment
  4. Rifampicin inhibits the assembly of DNA and protein into mature virus particles. It inhibits initiation of RNA synthesis by binding to β-subunit of RNA polymerase, which results in cell death. Rifampicin has been shown to inhibit α-synuclein fibrillation and disaggregate fibrils in a concentration-dependent manner
  5. A precise description of the mechanism of action of the rifamycins would be intrinsically interesting, but, in addition, such a description would allow a more precise dissection of the steps that occur during the process of RNA chain initiation. Physical studies on the binding of rifampicin (a semisyn
  6. Electrochemical studies of the interaction of rifampicin and nanosome/rifampicin with dsDNA. Bioelectrochemistry 2021, 140 , 107736. Bacterial Cytological Profiling as a Tool To Study Mechanisms of Action of Antibiotics That Are Active against Acinetobacter baumannii..
  7. In antibiotic: Mechanisms of action One antibiotic, rifampin, interferes with ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in bacteria by binding to a subunit on the bacterial enzyme responsible for duplication of RNA. Since the affinity of rifampin is much stronger for the bacterial enzyme than for the human enzyme, the human cells are unaffecte

The mechanism of the action of the rifampicin/rifampin (1) is similar to that of rifamycin. Rifabutin (2) has activity spectrum similar to rifampicin, but appears to possess incomplete cross-resistance with rifampicin in vitro Source Rifampicin is a semi-synthetic derivatives of Rifamycin antibiotics, which are produced by the fermentation of a strain of Streptomyces mediterranei (a soil bacteria). 3. PHARMACOKINATICS ROUTE OF ADMINSTRATION: ORALLY, INTRAVENOUS (I/V), EYE DROP

10. Mechanism of action of antibiotics Ahamed Basha K, ICAR- Visakhapatnam research centre of Central Institute of Fisheries Technology Introduction Antibiotics and similar drugs, together called antimicrobial agents, have been used for the last 70 years to treat patients who have infectious diseases (CDC, 2017). Antimicrobials ar The second postulated mechanism of action of rifampicin is by inhibition of bile salt uptake by hepatocytes leading to a reduction in bile salt mediated disruption of hepatocyte membranes causing release of pruritogens. 2

Rifampicin DrugBank Onlin

  1. istered (antagonism), leading to hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) and negatively influencing the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of the companion drugs
  2. resistance. The following sections will review the mode of action and resistance mechanisms of the main anti-TB drugs as well as new drugs recently described with anti-TB activity. 2. First-Line Anti-TB Drugs 2.1. Rifampicin Rifampicin is a rifamycin derivative introduced in 1972 as an antituberculosis agent. It is one of th
  3. Rifampicin is a potent and broad spectrum antibiotic against bacterial pathogens. Rifampicin has anti- influenza virus activities. For research use only. We do not sell to patients
  4. ocycline (ROM) therapy in the treatment of leprosy? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop Med Int Health 16:1541-1551. a, b Wang F, Langley R, Gulten G, Dover LG, Besra GS, Jacobs WR, Jr., Sacchettini JC. 2007. Mechanism of thioamide drug action against tuberculosis and leprosy. J Exp Med.
  5. Mechanisms of Action of TB Drugs Under Development Nitroimidazoles, SQ-109 Meropenem, and Benzothiazinones act on cell wall synthesis. Imidazopyridine Amide inhibits ATP synthesis. Rifamycins, Oxazolidinones and Macrolides act on DNA
  6. Mechanisms of action of different RIFs. A RIF (with or without groups at C-3/C-4 or KglA) bound at the RIF-binding pocket either sterically blocks progression of the growing RNA chain, resulting in abortive synthesis (left), or inhibits the first phosphodiester bond formation by interfering with initiating NTP or with σ region 3.2 that.

Rifadin capsules, syrup and intravenous infusion all contain the active ingredient rifampicin, which is a type of medicine called a rifamycin antibiotic. Rifampicin is most frequently used to. Rifampicin: Kinetics and Mechanisms of Action Rifampicin is a critical and potent component of first-line TB therapy having unique properties of a rapid onset action once in contact with M. tuberculosis.7 It is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and the rate of absorption is most variable among all TB drugs Pretomanid is a promising anti-tubercular drug currently at clinical phase III, but its mechanisms of action are currently unclear. This study aimed to: (i) reveal the metabolome of Mycobacterium. Consistent with this proposed mechanism, the quinone rifamycin S, which is unable to generate an anion at C2 , is a poor substrate for Rox enzymes. This observation suggests that similar molecules could be used in combination therapy to rescue rifamycin antibiotic action Mechanisms of Action . Rifampicin is a critical and. potent component of first-line TB . In view of the marked dose-dependence of rifampicin's bacterial sterilizing action, it is therefore.

Chris is an Intensivist and ECMO specialist at the Alfred ICU in Melbourne. He is also the Innovation Lead for the Australian Centre for Health Innovation at Alfred Health and Clinical Adjunct Associate Professor at Monash University.. He is a co-founder of the Australia and New Zealand Clinician Educator Network (ANZCEN) and is the Lead for the ANZCEN Clinician Educator Incubator programme In ARREST, 758 adults with S aureus bacteraemia were randomly assigned to 2 weeks of treatment with either rifampicin (600 mg or 900 mg per day; oral or intravenous) or placebo, in addition to standard antibiotic therapy. The primary outcome was time to bacteriological treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death (all-cause) from randomisation to 12 weeks different from those following rifampicin treatment. These findings suggest that GPI0363 has a unique mechanism of action and can serve as a promising lead molecule to develop staphylococcal RNA polymerase inhibitors. Introduction Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), an enzyme involved in gene transcription and expression,1 is an attractive. Voractiv tablets contain four active ingredients, rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. These are all antibiotics used to treat tuberculosis (TB). They work by killing the bacteria. Rifampicin has a powerful activity both on M. tuberculosis and M. leprae. All derivative products of rifamycin SV have a similar central macrocyclic structure, probably responsible for antibacterial activity

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Rifampicin, a rifamycin, is active against mycobacteria. Rifamycin, is also an inhibitor of chloroplast RNA polymerase and may be used to study chloroplast-level DNA transcription in plants. Packaging 1, 5 g in glass bottle Biochem/physiol Actions Inhibits the assembly of DNA and protein into mature virus particles For Healthcare Professionals. Applies to rifampin: compounding powder, intravenous powder for injection, oral capsule. Dermatologic. Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Serious cutaneous reactions. Frequency not reported: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, erythema multiforme, face edema, itching with/without rash, mild cutaneous reactions, pemphigoid reaction, pruritus.

Rifampicin, an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis, is used extensively despite its broad effects on drug-drug interactions, creating serious problems. The clinical importance of such interactions includes autoinduction leading to suboptimal or failed treatment. The concomitantly administered effects of rifampicin on other drugs can result in their altered metabolism or. Rifampicin is an anti-tuberculosis drug that inhibits RNA polymerase β, and is effective against MRSA. The combination of rifampicin with one or more drugs is recommended in order to prevent the emergence of rifampicin-resistant bacteria Mechanism of Action. Erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 23S rRNA molecule (in the 50S subunit) of the bacterial ribosome blocking the exit of the growing peptide chain. of sensitive microorganisms. (Humans do not have 50 S ribosomal subunits, but have ribosomes composed of 40 S and 60 S.

Molecular Mechanism of Action of the Antibiotic Rifampicin

In this video it was a case of 23 years old patient who is taking Anti-tuberculosis medication. What is the most common side effect of Rifampicin? You will find red-orange in color in urine, sweat. The mechanism of action of rifampicin involves the inhibition of the bacterial-DNA-dependent RNA polymerase [20]. Toxicity from rifampicin can lead to serious adverse effects,.

Molecular mechanisms of action, resistance, detection to

Combining two drugs with different mode of action will improve the efficiency of the treatment strategy against MRSA. The present study was aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism underlying the antibiofilm activity of thymol against MRSA and assess the ability of thymol to improve the antibacterial activity of rifampicin Structural mechanism for rifampicin inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase. Cell 2001;104:901-912 26 Wehrli, W. Rifampin: Mechanisms of Action and Resistance. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1983; 5 (Supplement 3):S407-S411 27. McClure WR, Cech CL. On the mechanism of rifampicin inhibition of RNA synthesis Read Mycobacterium smegmatis RNA polymerase: DNA supercoiling, action of rifampicin and mechanism of rifampicin resistance, Molecular Microbiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips MECHANISM OF ACTION OF BARBITURATES 85 rate isomers, it should be noted that stereoselective metabolism or distribu-tion may occur, resulting in different isomer tissue levels. For example, three minutes after intravenous administration of equal dosages of pen- tobarbital isomers, the brain concentration of (+) pentobarbital is 40%.

Rifamycin - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Rifampicin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in bacterial cells by binding its beta-subunit, thus preventing transcription to RNA and subsequent translation to proteins. Its lipophilic nature makes it a good candidate to treat the meningitis form of tuberculosis, which requires distribution to the central nervous system and penetration. A three-drug regimen (macrolide, ethambutol, and rifampicin) is recommended for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). Although macrolide has proven efficacy, the role of ethambutol and rifampicin in patients without acquired immune deficiency syndrome is not proven with clinical studies. We aimed to clarify the roles of ethambutol and rifampicin in the. Mode of Action of Kanglemycin A, an Ansamycin Natural Product that Is Active against Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hamed Mosaei,1,7 Vadim Molodtsov,2,7 Bernhard Kepplinger,1,3,7 John Harbottle,1 Christopher William Moon,4 Rose Elizabeth Jeeves,4 Lucia Ceccaroni,1 Yeonoh Shin,2 Stephanie Morton-Laing,5 Emma Claire Louise Marrs, Physicians are more and more often challenged by difficult-to-treat cases of TB. They include patients infected by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin (multidrug-resistant TB) or to at least one fluoroquinolone (FQ) and one injectable, second-line anti-TB drug in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin (extensively drugresistant TB)

Rifadin, Rimactane (rifampin) dosing, indications

Importantly, the definition of multidrug resistance (MDR) in TB is based on the resistance of MTB strains to INH and rifampicin (RIF). Despite its simple chemical structure, the mechanism of action of INH is very complex and involves several different concepts. Many pathways pertaining to macromolecular synthesis are affected, notably mycolic. Mechanism : Rifampin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells. Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme. Rifampin at therapeutic levels has demonstrated bactericidal activity against both intracellular and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms Background References. Rifampin: mechanisms of action and resistance. Wehrli Rev.Infect.Dis., 1983;5:S407 ; Orphan nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor share xenobiotic and steroid ligands

Background: Recent studies have found that rifampicin has neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection. In this study, we examined whether rifampicin exhibits beneficial effects mediated by the Nrf2 pathway after. The mechanism of persister cell formation and its regulation is not well understood. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been implicated to be responsible for bacterial persistence and rifampicin is used to treat highly persistent bacterial strains

Rifampicin Pharmacology & Usage Details Medicine Indi

by barbiturates,32 rifampicin,34 and carbamazepine,32 which increase its metabolic clearance by inducing hepatic mixed oxidase activity. Although long-term alcohol use has a potential to increase the clearance of warfarin through a similar mechanism, consumption of even relatively large amounts of wine was shown in one study29 to have littl It can also be explained that rifampicin has antimycobacterial activity by binding to the β subunit of RNA polymerase, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis [ 32 ]. In slowly growing mycobacteria such as MAC species, such a mechanism may result in a bacteriostatic effect rather than a bactericidal effect [ 33 ] Rifampicin inhibits most prokaryotic RNA polymerases. 7, 8 It is used in combination with several drugs for different infections, including tuberculosis and leprosy. 8 Rifampicin is also used in.

Mycobacterium smegmatis RNA polymerase: DNA supercoiling

Rifampin.com - The official site for Rifampin informatio

Resistance to rifampicin: a review The Journal of

Mechanism of Action of Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol, like many other antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline's, erythromycin, etc. inhibits protein synthesis. It binds to the 23S rRNA on the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome and inhibits the action of peptidyl transferase enzyme (Fig. 45.13)

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Rifampin C43H58N4O12 - PubChe

Rifampicin (other name: rifampin) is a semisynthetic rifamycin antibiotic, which is chemically synthesized from rifamycin, which is isolated from a strain of the actinomycete Amycolatopsis mediterranei.Rifampicin has activity against a wide variety of organisms, including tuberculosis germs and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as in vitro activity against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus. Rifampicin or capreomycin induced remodelling of the Mycobacte- rium smegmatis mycolic acid layer is mitigated in synergistic combi- nations with cationic antimicrobial peptides DeDe Kwun-Wai Man1,2, Tokuwa Kanno1, Giorgia Manzo1, Brian D. Robertson3, Jenny K.W. Lam2 and A. James Mason1* 1Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, School of Cancer & Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London. Introduction Isoniazid, also known isonicotinylhydrazine (INH), is an organic compound which is used as a first line medication, both prophylactically and in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) or tubercle bacillus, an infectious disease caused by mycobacterial strains, usually mycobacterium tuberculosis. INH enters the mycobacterial cell by passive diffusion (1)

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